Category Archives: Wikipedia

Wikipedia Project: Politics and Sports

Politics and Sports provides a great overview of how politics can interact with sports. It talks about how politics influecne soccer and visa versa. However, it does not contain any information on how Brazilian government interacted with sports. Their most famous sport, which is soccer, had been used as a mean of politics in Brazil. I (Phong20) am planning to expand the article by adding a new section on Country.

As mentioned above, I (Phong20) am planning to improve this article by adding a new section on Country. It will include section on Brazil. Brazil had political involvement in soccer and the article does not mention about that. For example, 1970 World Cup, Brazilian government used the team’s success to promote their propaganda. Adding a section will result adding some external sources and primary sources.

Wikipedia Project Update: Balaiada Revolt Changing

For my project, it seems I have a little bit of trouble finding adequate English sources for the Balaiada Revolt. So I’m going to be changing to something around the Vargas Era and discussing with Professor Holt about what exactly that will entail. The Vargas Era is quite interesting and I am certain that there will be plenty of more sources than the previous project idea. There is plenty of interesting events that had occurred in the Vargas era that deserve their own articles. An example of that would possibly the period of friendship between the Integralists and the Communist parties. But overall, I’m still trying to formulate an idea of what I will be doing.

Sorry for posting late, I’m a little bit sick.

Wiki article idea: Juscelino Kubitschek

Juscelino was the 22nd President of Brazil who’s term was from 1956 to 1961 and made a massive impact on Brazil’s economy, and moved the capital to Rio de Janeiro to the newly constructed Brasilia. The current article is rather short, and lacking detail for a supposedly controversial and impactful figure in Brazilian history, and politics.

While it is certainly difficult to remain unbiased when it comes to political leaders, especially elected ones, remaining as unbiased as possible will require examining multiple sources, from multiple points of view and going from there. Examining Brazil’s political system, and looking more into a famous and impactful leader is important to understand the past and understand his legacy. Understanding his legacy is important for understanding the present political climate and his contributions to it. I will attempt to examine his policies, controversies, and his career before becoming President as well as after.

Wiki Update: Racism in Brazil

The article I will pursuing  for my “clean up” project is “Racism in Brazil.” The most shocking part of this article is that it hardly talks about slavery in Brazil. Rather, most of its information doesn’t carry any historical context. Even though this is a Wikipedia page, I feel as though there should be more historical context within the article.

Additionally to the lack of context, the sections didn’t seem to be organized in any type of way. Hopefully, I can add more structure to the article, and provide some better examples than what was previously cited. To my dismay, there wasn’t a lot going on in the talk page. Perhaps this is an ambitious project, but I think it is one that is worth pursuing.



Research Project – Festa Junina

To emphasize a crucial aspect of Brazilian society to the class, this research project will emphasize the importance of the Festa Junina, or June Festival in Brazil. On the surface, this is just another aspect of culture well known for its festivities. However, just like carnival, this festival carries heavy social themes of class and race which infiltrate all interactions during the celebration. This research project aims to explore how the Festa Junina perpetuates racist and classist sentiments in a Brazilian urban environment. To better convey these issues to an American audience,


To understand the Festa Junina, an acknowledgement must be given to the traditions within the festival that will be explored. Using sources that trace the history of practices such as bonfires and São João to their European origin, a foundation can be created for understanding Brazilian versions of this Midsummer celebration. Thus, other primary sources can provide clarity to the specific practices unique to Brazil. From there, various secondary sources will serve as critiques of the aforementioned traditions, analyzing the executions of the festival in Brazilian metropolitan areas. Although the tradition is centered around a celebration of rural life, these scholarly sources expose the festival as an exclusionary practice that prevents those being celebrated from participating, simultaneously demeaning non-white Brazilians in the process. This research is to discover more of how a seemingly lighthearted event carries dangerous implications for Brazilian society itself.


The act of maintaining a major tradition for fair-skinned and middle class Brazilians results in the intersection of identity in the nation. A major focus of this course has been to outline the lived experiences of Brazilians, and what aspects of the culture allow individuals to identify with the nationality. Understanding how this tradition, which has existed since the colonial area, has emphasized the class and racial dynamics in Brazil is crucial to analyzing how the society is structured. Knowing the development and modern practices of the festival can provide insight into knowing the true face of Brazilian society is like.


This research project integrates various interpretations of the Festa Junina ino a single presentation, providing an overview of how this festival sustains a culture of class and racial exclusion in a nation which prides itself on equality. Designed for an American audience, this project will illuminate issues within an important Brazilian festival, breaking down preconceived notions that Brazilian culture is simply a tourist paradise for innocent excitement. This is a culture with complex and deep rooted issues, problems which will be understood through the context of the Festa Junina.



Primary Sources:


  • Rangel, Lúcia Helena Vitalli. Festas juninas, festas de São João: origens, tradições e história. São Paulo, SP: Publishing Solutions, 2008.
  • Anderson, Michael Alan. “Fire, Foliage and Fury: Vestiges of Midsummer Ritual in Motets for John the Baptist.” Early Music History, 2011. 1-54.
  • Bhoil, Shelly. 2017. Festa junina – the winter fest of brazil. Indian Express, Jun 28, 2017.


Scholarly/Secondary Sources:

  • Chisholm, Jennifer. “Festa junina and the Changing Meanings of Brazilian Rural Festivals in Urban Spaces.” Alter/nativas, no. 4 (2015).
  • Packman, Jeff. 2012. “The Carnavalização of São João: Forrós, Sambas and Festive Interventions during Bahia, Brazil’s festas juninas.” Ethnomusicology Forum 21, no. 3: 327-353.
  • Campos, Judas Tadeu de. 2007. Festas juninas nas escolas: Lições de preconceitos. Educação & Sociedade 589-606
  • Roth-Gordon, Jennifer. “Fears of Racial Contact: Crime, Violence, and the Struggle over Urban Space.” In Race and the Brazilian Body: Blackness, Whiteness, and Everyday Language in Rio De Janeiro, 95-127. Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2017.
  • Castro, Jânio Roque Barros. “The Promotion of Big Parties During the June Festivities in Private Arenas in Reconcavo Region: An Analytical Assessment.” GeoTextos, 2011.

Wikipedia Revision: Anti-Vaccine Riot

For my second Wikipedia revision assignment, I plan to examine and make improvements to the article titled “Vaccine Revolt.” As one might assume from the title, this article concerns itself with a brief but violent popular backlash to a public health campaign waged by the government of Rio de Janeiro. Although the uprising itself was named for the in-home smallpox vaccinations mandated by the mayor immediately preceding the outbreak of violence, it is crucial to understand that this particular program followed a longer array of stringent measures aimed at eliminating the litany of diseases that had plagued the city since it had become drastically more populated in the nineteenth century. One especially disruptive policy was the demolition of old and low-income housing complexes, which left thousands of city residents homeless and potentially served to aggravate class tensions.

I discovered this article while searching for material relating to positivism in Brazil, an effort which merely uncovered several sources with which the concept had a degree of overlap. Once I learned of the 1904 Vaccine Revolt through these texts, I became intrigued; for the topic of political street violence in general has long interested me, and this event is one sufficiently obscure for me to assume that we will not be covering it in class. Moreover, the riot and its contributing factors may be emblematic of the issues Rio de Janeiro and other large cities faced in the midst of large-scale population influxes from Europe and the Brazilian interior.

The Wiki article itself, while providing a decent summary of the unrest and the series of events that preceded it, fails to make any citations whatsoever. Needless to say, this is insufficient for the standards outlined for the members of our class as editors. To make matters worse, it puts much of the article at some risk for deletion. I will verify as much of the information on the page as I can, in addition to providing what other knowledge I am able to glean from academic sources. One of these is “‘Civilizing Rio de Janeiro’: The Public Health Campaign in the Riot of 1904,” published in the Journal of Social History. Another is “Positivism and Revolution in Brazil’s First Republic: The 1904 Revolt,” published in The Americas. If these sources and the others that I find ultimately befit the purpose, I will also elaborate upon what divisions the turmoil might have revealed within Brazilian society at the onset of the twentieth century.

Potential Wikipedia article on the Bumba-meu-boi festival

For my potential Wikipedia article to improve upon, I propose the page on the Bumba-meu-boi festival. As of now the article only includes a lightly detailed lead. The current lead attempts to summarize the story behind the festival in a sentence or two with a short explanation of the most important characters played. This, in of itself is a gap in the festivals Wiki page. I look to add more details behind the story behind the festival as well as all of its characters and what they symbolize. Other gaps in the article I intend to improve upon are the history of the festival, where it occurs, how long it lasts, and its deep connection to Brazilian culture.

I Think I can do Wikipedia a great service by vastly improving this article because Bumba-meu-boi is one of Brazil’s largest celebrations, yet it isn’t covered nearly as well as Brazil’s main festival, Carnival because it isn’t publicized as much. The festival is also deeply rooted in the nation’s many cultures including that of native tribes. Additionally, the festival is an old tradition that dates back to the late 1800’s, from which it has slowly grown from a single small town to the whole country.

Because the festival is not as well known outside of Brazil there are not large amounts of translated literature on it, like you would find on the Carnival festival. However, there is still an ample abundance of studies on it which will provide me with everything I need. One great source titled The Coexistence of Folk and Popular Culture as Vehicles of Social and Historical Activism: Transformation of the Bumba-meu-boi in Northeast Brazil identifies the complex hybrid cultures within the festival. There are also plenty of books including An Interdisciplinary Study of The Ox and the Slave (Bumba-meu-Boi)A Satirical Music Drama in BrazilI.


Wikipedia Article: Luiz Gama

A potential article that I will improve on Wikipedia is the Luiz Gama page. When looking at his page, I saw content gaps in his biography. Specifically, there was a large gap between 1847 and the 1860’s, which is when Gama was 18-31 years old. One of my goals is to fill this gap with details of what he did during this period. I would also like to expand on what kind of cases he handled as a lawyer, as sources have indicated that he has helped free slaves using the law. The Works section is also quite small, so I will also look for more of Gama’s literary contributions. Gama was both a journalist and poet, but there is not a lot of information on the type of work he did. Lastly, more details on his contribution to the Republican Party of São Paulo and their success will hopefully be added.

This article is important for Brazilian history because Gama played an important role for the abolition movement in Brazil. In class, we covered the role of the elites and female slaves in the abolition movement. Although we recognized that free blacks played a role in the abolition movement, we did not go into details with a specific case. By updating the Luiz Gama page, I will be able shed light on the role of free black men in abolition. Gama’s case is especially interesting since he used his career as a lawyer to help slaves. This article is also important for Brazilian culture because Gama was also a journalist and poet. By examining his poems closer, one can gain a better sense of the Brazilian culture at the time. Gama’s work as a journalist would also reveal important topics that were occurring in São Paulo.

Reputable sources that exist to back up the new content I plan to add include several encyclopedias with information on Luiz Gama, such as Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience and the Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. There are also several books about abolition that include information about Luiz Gama, such as The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil, Children of God’s Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil and The Destruction of Brazilian Slavery. There is also a Portuguese nonprofit organization in São Paulo, Brazil called Instituto Luiz Gama that is dedicated to Luiz Gama. The organization seems to be made up of professors and lawyers and their website provides more information about Luiz Gama as well. These sources will help add detail to the Wikipedia page of Luiz Gama. Lastly, I checked the Talk page and there were no comments on the page, so hopefully my additions will help.

Wikipedia Article: Japanese cuisine in São Paulo

For my potential article for the Wikipedia Article assignment I am interested in tackling the Japanese cuisine in São Paulo. There are a few content gaps that I saw in the article. First, the formatting of the page is messy- thus making it more difficult to navigate the page and its information. Secondly, the page does not go into Japanese-Brazilian food, specifically sushi, in other countries. For example, in most of Europe there are many Japanese-Brazilian sushi places in Italy that are certified as such. This article is important for improving the coverage of Brazilian history and culture because this is a relatively new culture in Brazil (Japanese arrived in São Paulo in 1530 but the Brazilian government officially signed a Emigration contract for the coffee labor field in 1907).

The sources available are primarily scholarly secondary sources concerning Japanese culture in Brazil from 1908-1940 as well as 1908-1988. I will also be using Japanese-Brazilian cuisine in other countries as a source from the restaurants/food guidelines and standards as a source. On this Wiki page, there was only one comment on the talk page. This comment was regarding mistranslating of one of the sources used. I think this is an important Wiki page to improve and one that could use my help.


Wikipedia Article Rewrite: Education in Brazil

For my Wikipedia article, I want to improve on the Education in Brazil article. Currently, the article covers the basic information: a brief history, current school structure, and a few sentences on international education. For such a broad topic, there should be much more information on the article. Education is a very important concept for understanding a nation’s culture. By understanding education, one can understand class and citizenship differences. Education is also important to LGBTQ and women’s issues.

Specifically, I want to expand the history section and add a section discussing prevalent issues in Brazilian education. In the U.S., full citizenship was only given to those who were educated. Adding the history of education will also highlight the history of citizenship. Also, as we discussed in class, Jesuits often used education to covert indigenous peoples to Catholicism. Adding this will highlight corruption in education. It is also important to add issues with education because of what issues in education often highlights: inequality and corruption in government. It also shows what common problems are occurring in greater society today. In the talk page, someone posted a few years ago that Brazil was a “sh*thole country” who had many problems with their “‘public education system’”. It is very important to remove what they said from readers’ minds and input correct information.

I can use the seven constitutions of Brazil to learn a history of voting rights, with emphasis on the latest—1988. I will also use information that we have learned in class to find basic information and find further readings, especially with the Jesuit schools information. The article itself has many references which I can draw more information from, and from the resources that I have obtained from my research project on education, I can learn more about Brazilian educational issues and how leaders have attempted to acknowledge or repair them.